What does the body language of the dog mean and how to interpret it correctly?

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dogs are played

For centuries, wolves developed a complex system of non-verbal communication. Our pets have inherited this carefully thought-out system, and are equally expressive in using special movements, facial expressions and voice (barking, whining, howl, etc.) to communicate with themselves like their ancestors did. This language will understand the dog of any breed. To communicate with you and your "pack" members, the dog also uses the language familiar to her. , что пытаются нам сказать наши четверолапые друзья. Fortunately, we can learn to understand what our four-legged friends are trying to tell us.

, понять её состояние, побуждения, и адекватно отреагировать на возникшую ситуацию, например, случившуюся на выгуле, либо связанную с дрессировкой, проблемами в поведении и т.д. If you can correctly interpret the way a dog feels, observe its posture, body movements and listen to these signals, you can anticipate its actions , understand its state, motivations, and adequately respond to the situation, for example, happened on the ground, or associated with training, behavioral problems, etc.

In general, the acquired knowledge will allow you to extract much more information from the behavior of the pet. In this article, we decompose the language of the dog's body into components, that is, components. At first, for better mastering of the material by the reader, it will be appropriate, but it should be remembered that it is impossible to understand the feelings and intentions of a dog, considering the gestures of its body separately.

The collection of information, translation, pictures and design took (at most) at least two and a half days. I hope you enjoy my humble work.

Behavior of dogs. Mimicry of muzzle.

The muzzles of dogs can be of different size and shape, but each face has much to tell the owner about what its owner feels.


A dog, like people, is able to express their emotions through the eyes, changing the shape, the size of the eyes, the direction and intensity of the look. When the dog is calm, his eyes will be in normal condition. Some dogs have rounded eyes, while others have more almond-shaped eyes. Eyes that seem somewhat larger than when they are in normal condition usually indicate that the dog feels threatened. She can feel excited or scared.

The aggressive dog's eyes look slightly larger than usual. If the dog's eyes seem smaller than always, thereby she can express fear or stress, agitation. Dogs that feel pain or feel bad look sideways. Demonstrating a submissive position, the dog can also look a little sideways.

the dog looks away The direction of the dog's look also speaks volumes. Dog representatives rarely look into each other's eyes, as this is considered threatening behavior. Nevertheless, many dogs managed to understand that it is perfectly normal, and sometimes even nice, to look directly at people. The dog, looking at you with a calm expression of the muzzle, is friendly to you and hopes that you will notice it.

But if the dog looks directly at you with a strained, as if "frozen" expression of the muzzle - this is another matter. A direct view is more likely to be threatening, the closer you are to the animal. . In that case, you are very wise to act if you just slowly take your eyes off and down . This is what dogs do when communicating with their own kind, when they do not want to go to a conflict.

A dog that looks away at the moment when you look at it, shows its subordinate position. This can also mean that she is concerned about the interaction with you. For example, after applying a punishment or a strong stimulus, during training sessions. , а наоборот – ослабить силу наказания, а во время занятий дрессировкой – уменьшить силу раздражителя . Hence, one does not need to be so strict , but on the contrary - to weaken the force of punishment, and during training by training - to reduce the strength of the stimulus . You need to be able to look at your actions from the outside, on this depends your success as a trainer.

If the dog hides the view from strangers, and in general, diffidently behaves in their presence, it means that he had an unpleasant experience of communicating with people in the past, and so it is hard for him now. Any dog ​​can be returned to a normal state, accustomed to people, but only if the owner tries. Make an angry dog and one that would be able to protect the owner (if its breed is bred for protection) is not difficult, even from the most shy individual. It is better to focus on obedience.

If the dog does not look directly into your eyes, but instead - follows you, and you see most of the proteins of her eyes (sclera), this may mean that an outbreak of aggression is outlined. This behavior is shown by the dog during the time it gnaws a bone, a toy, or it protects its place. This behavior is different from the behavior of a dog resting on its place, and slightly opening its eyes to hold you looking obliquely. In the latter case, it will not look at least tense.

The mouth.

Dogs do substantially more things with the help of their mouth than the dog is relaxed just eat and drink. Even without the ability to speak, they communicate with their lips, teeth, and tongue. Certain gestures involving these parts of the body are very capable of telling another dog. Well, to you, of course.

When your dog feels relaxed and satisfied, its mouth is closed, or slightly open. A dog that is frightened or in a submissive state, keeps its mouth closed, or covered - her lips stretch slightly in the corners. At this time, she can, slightly opening her mouth, breathing, sticking and sticking out her tongue. Interacting with a person or other animal, the dog can use the language. What happens if you bend over to greet your dog on your return home? That's right, it will fill you.

the dog smiles Dogs demonstrate a "humble smile" when they want to show their subordinate position. They stretch their lips so as to show their front teeth: incisors and fangs. These signals are almost always accompanied by submissive pose of the body, for example, lowered head, whimpering, narrowed eyes. People often mistakenly interpret the significance of this behavior, considering it to be aggressive, while the dog "smiles" humbly, trying to convey to the owner that the conflict is not in his interest.

If the dog has aggressive intentions, he demonstrates his front teeth, and wrinkles appear on his face. This behavior is typical for dogs who do not want you (or another creature) to approach them.

The dog can pull his lips back in a horizontal direction so that their corners will fit tightly to each other. With this grin you will see his front and back teeth: premolars and molars. This position clearly indicates that the dog is afraid. As soon as the dog is going to bite, it seems to pull the lips up and back so that its mouth opens and the teeth are exposed.

aggressive dog body gestures

Dog ears.

Dog ears come in many different shapes and types. The size and shape of your dog's ears affect how well she uses them to communicate. Some ears hang like a hound, others have the shape of a dome, like a German shepherd, the third has ears half as tall as a Shetland sheepdog, and they hanging near the ground near the basset hound.

sobaka-cherneniakaia-skalitsia The ears of some breeds are cropped, but many animal welfare organizations do not recommend cupping, urging breeders and dog owners to leave the ears of their pets as they are created by nature. In most cases, cupping is purely cosmetic surgery, not mandatory, but causing unnecessary pain and discomfort to the dog.

When your dog feels calm and comfortable, his ears will be in normal condition. When he bark at something, his ears occupy a "fighting position", as if rising higher on his head, and he will guide them towards anything that keeps his interest. Sensing a surge of aggression, the dog raises his ears and directs a little forward. If your dog's ears are slightly pushed back, then it signals about their friendly intentions. If the ears are completely pressed to the head or directed each to their side on either side of the head - the animal demonstrates its obedience.

Dog's tail.

If the dog wags its tail, then it shows its friendly behavior. This statement is far from the truth. , в том числе, когда выражают агрессию, а пёс, который в данный момент им не виляет, тем не менее, может оставаться дружелюбно – настроенным. Dogs wag their tail for many reasons , including when they express aggression, and the dog that does not wag them at the moment, nevertheless, can remain friendly-minded. The ability of a dog to express his emotions with a tail depends on how he has it.

In most dogs, the tail is "normal", it the pug looks into the camera hanging in the region of the hocks. At the pug, the tail is curled and lies on the back. In the greyhound and whippet - a little hiding between the hind legs (which is natural for the breed). In some breeds, the tail is short by nature, or according to breed standards it is supposed to be quashed.

When the dog is relaxed, its tail will be in its natural position. If the beast feels happy, he will gently wag his tail from side to side. When the dog is especially happy, for example, when he meets you after a long absence, his tail will move very quickly from side to side, and can even make sweeping circular movements.

If the animal is nervous or in a submissive state, it will keep its tail down, or even lay it between its hind legs. In this case, the dog can quickly wiggle them from side to side. When she is overwhelmed by a strong fear or she tries to show her subordinate position, the tail will be pressed closer to the stomach.

the dog is leaning on a leash When the dog is alerted by something, it signals this with a high-lifted tail. It will stand exactly and rigidly, like a pipe. If the dog stands on its own or shows aggression, threatening someone, a person or other animal, it can shake the tip of the tail from side to side. сигнализируют о том, что пёс не настроен дружелюбно в данный момент времени. It may seem that he just wag his tail, but all the other gestures of the body signal that the dog is not friendly at the moment.

Dog's fur.

Using your own wool, as you understand, dogs communicate very little. But even it plays its role in communication, and you will be able to "take" certain information from it. Firstly, a frightened or emotionally restrained dog tends to shed more. Have you noticed how, after a visit to the veterinarian, you, the place where the dog was and the wool remains on the doctor himself? Of course, there are dogs that do not shed , but stress will still take part of the wool cover and from them.

Also, dogs can "pin up" the wool to tell what they are feeling at the moment. In a clever way, this is called pylorecection. The beast raises its fur along the line of the spine, when it experiences fear, nervousness, anger, is overexcited or feels insecure.

General position of the body.

To communicate their intentions, dogs use the body. In general terms: they look normal, or try to appear more or less. If the dog feels well, it will look normal: its muscles are relaxed, and the body weight is evenly distributed on all four legs.

Staying in a playful mood, the dog's body will look normal, as always. She can jump, play with you, bring things on command "aport" , be in motion all the time, but the muscles of the body and muzzle are relaxed, and nothing in her behavior looks unnatural.

This behavior is strikingly different from the general look of a frightened dog. When the dog is afraid, he tries to seem less. He can bend his paws or even lie down on the ground. His head, at the same time, he keeps low, and tries to get away from the object that caused fright at the first opportunity.

For example, if your dog is afraid of climbing to the table with a veterinarian, he will stay away from the doctor himself, and will cuddle up against the owner. If the dog is experiencing uncertainty and interest in it, then it will approach it cautiously, distributing the weight on both hind legs so that it can quickly retreat at any moment.

The submissive dog is very similar to a frightened dog, because it also tries to look smaller in order to inform its behavior that it poses no threat. If your dog demonstrates his submission, she will lower her body slightly or even lie down on the ground.

Feeling his superiority (dominant behavior), the dog tries to look more. At this point, his muscles are as tight as possible, he stands strictly straight, sometimes even on tiptoes, with his neck and head elevated in relation to the level of the shoulders. The body weight is distributed on all four paws, or most of it falls on the front paws.

In a fit of aggression, the dog also seems more than usual to be as intimidating as possible. This behavior can not be confused with anything - the appearance of the dog in moments of anger eloquently speaks of her intentions. In this case, the weight of the body is concentrated on the front paws, so that the dog is comfortable to rush to the target at the right time.

Your dog's behavior. We collect everything in a heap.

The body language of dogs is a thin thing. Nevertheless, most dog breeders, being sufficiently attentive, will learn to recognize and interpret the most important signs from their pets without problems. It is important to know when your dog is playful and cheerful, tense or frightened, feels insecure or uncertain towards someone when angry or clearly determined to fight.

в ваших взаимоотношениях, считайте, вы достигли мастерства! Being able to read from the behavior of the dog's intentions, and having learned to behave correctly in the event of a problem situation in your relationship, consider, you have achieved mastery!

Satisfaction state.

Staying in a favorable mood, the dog's body language speaks better than any words about the relaxed state of the animal. Her muscles are relaxed, the tail and ears are in a natural position, and the dog itself does not try to look big or small for its physique. It can wag its tail from side to side or in circular motions. The expression of the muzzle is relaxed, the mouth is closed or slightly open, through which the dog can hardly breathe at a constant rate. The corners of the mouth (spikes) can be slightly turned up so that, it seems, the dog smiles.

A state of alertness.

the dog is thrilled When the dog wants to warn you about something, he looks focused and purposeful. He stands straight, the weight of his body is concentrated on all four paws, his ears "look" up and forward, the head and neck are straight. He keeps the rigid and fixed tail in a natural position, either vertically or even on his back. The dog's gaze is directed towards the object that caused the alert behavior. As a rule, the mouth is closed, but the animal can start to growl, or bark. The wool on the back becomes a rack, but not always - it depends on the level of the emotional state.

Excited state.

the dog raised his paw Being in an excited state, the dog looks as active as staying in the alertness state mentioned above, but can take more playful behavior. The dog's body is completely ready for action. It looks normal in size, but the weight is concentrated on the hind legs, as if the dog is preparing for movement. She keeps her ears straight, and her tail high. The last dog can wag.

If the source of excitement is a person or an object, the dog does not take his eyes off him. Being in an excited state, the dog often holds the mouth ajar, and can begin to bark.

State of emotion.

When your dog is excited about something, it can be difficult to tell what the difference between a state of excitement and states of alertness and arousal is. , на какую реакцию толкнут собаку её чувства. The important thing is how she will behave in consequence , on what reaction the dog of her feelings will be pushed. A state of excitement can push her to a sense of fear or cause an aggressive reaction. In any case, the wool on the back is almost always standing on end.

: страх, неопределённость или злобу. At the same time, practically everything that can be told to us by the dog's body language about this condition depends on what the dog feels : fear, uncertainty or anger. The dog's body may look normal in size, or large, the ears are pinned to the head or forward, and its tail can be in a normal position or stay much higher. A dog can look or not directly on an object or an individual.

Sometimes, it would seem, there is nothing in the environment or person that can provoke a reaction in the dog, but she can hear the unpleasant sound of her, feel an unpleasant smell. For example, many dogs do not like drunks, and even if the drunken body has passed far enough from your pet, the latter can still display aggression.


The easiest way to determine when a dog is set up is playful, and every host knows, or should look for ways how to play your pet. At a minimum, it will be useful when learning to use an appendix, as a consequence - to find things, etc. And anyway, the game is a great way to develop physically. And development for you and your dog.

щенок приглашает поиграть Движения тела собаки резкие и пружинистые, она может прыгать, бегать вокруг вас или другой собаки, если с вами гуляет еще один четверолапый, всем телом намекая на своё игривое настроение. Приглашая принять участие в игре, собака может с разбегу прыгать на вас лапами, отталкиваться и убегать, надеясь, что вы поддержите эту забаву и решите догнать её. Как отучить собаку прыгать на хозяина ? Это не сложно, но эти хитрецы обязательно «усовершенствуют» свою игру и продолжат прыгать на хозяина, осуществляя прыжок быстрее, прыгая немного ниже (на хозяйские ноги), но это если при отучении быть недостаточно настойчивым и строгим.

Намекая стать участником весёлой игры, пёс может начать прыгать и одновременно лаять (или только лаять, без прыжков) на вас, но не агрессивно. Также, собака применяет следующий приём: немного подпрыгивает и, приземляясь на передние лапки, подгибает их, оставляя заднюю часть тела (круп) приподнятой. Это очень важный сигнал для другой собаки, так как игры могут быть весьма агрессивными, и содержать элементы доминантного поведения. Тот, кто проделывает этот забавный жест, как бы говорит: «Всё, что я собираюсь сделать после этого – поиграть с тобой, поэтому не воспринимай всерьёз всё то, что сейчас будет происходить».

Страх, испуг.

Когда собака боится, она делает всё возможное, чтобы казаться меньше, чем обычно. Она горбит спину, держа хвост очень низко или зажатым между задними лапами, а уши плотно прилегают к голове. Она может приседать на лапках ближе к земле, ведь если побег возможен – она могла бы сместить центр тяжести на задние лапы, или наклониться в сторону так, что это поспособствует отдаче, то есть начальному ускорению. Она может смотреть прямо на источник страха, или же вовсе отвернуться. Мышцы её морды и тела напряжены и неподвижны. Собака может зевать в гипертрофированном (преувеличенном виде).

поведение испуганной собаки

Доминантное поведение.

Во время взаимодействия с человеком или другой собакой, собаки могут выражать уверенное, напористое поведение, которое зачастую называют «доминирующим». Когда собака демонстрирует доминантное поведение, она вытягивается на передних лапах, иногда становясь на цыпочки, и старается казаться больше. Она выгибает шею и напрягает тело, которое становится подобным сжатой пружине.

доминантный пёс Вес тела животного распределяется на все четыре лапы, либо пёс смещает центр тяжести на две передние лапы. Его уши стоят ровно и направлены вперёд. Свой хвост собака держит твёрдо и высоко, иногда слегка виляя им. На спине шерсть иногда становится дыбом. Она не стесняется смотреть в глаза другим собакам или людям, может рычать, но рот, как правило, при таком поведении прикрыт.

Покорное поведение.

Когда собака чувствует себя покорно, во время взаимодействия с человеком или другой собакой, она всем своим телом пытается передать, что не представляет никакой угрозы, и что в агрессии нет необходимости. Во время демонстрации подчинённого поведения, собака съёживается, стараясь визуально сделать своё тело меньше, и держась ниже к земле. Она держит свой хвост низко, либо поджимает его к животу, им же собака может быстро вилять из стороны в сторону.

Пёс прижимает уши к голове, либо они направлены в разные стороны. Показывая покорность, он держит шею ближе к земле, но поворачивает голову в сторону другого человека или собаки. Собака может облизывать языком нос и губы, норовит отвести взгляд, чтобы не встретиться глазами с другой особью. Некоторые собаки, щенки особенно, могут описаться во время проявления покорного поведения. Почему собака писается и как отучить её от этого читайте в статье по ссылке.

собаки выясняют отношения

Собака можете перейти от активной демонстрации своей позиции к более пассивной. Она просто ложится и перекатывается на спину, показывая паховую область (гениталии). Во время демонстрации пассивной позиции, животное может лежать неподвижно, или касаться лапами доминирующего существа. Взгляд собаки направлен в сторону, и она может начать поскуливать. Некоторые собаки, и в особенности щенки, в таком положении порой описываются. Если животное описалось, испугавшись вас (или от радости), не наказывайте его за это .

Испуганно – агрессивная реакция.

Если собака ведёт себя трусливо–агрессивно, её жесты тела мало чем отличаются от тех, которые можно увидеть в те моменты, когда животное испытывает страх, однако, вдобавок, она может скалиться и рычать. Злобно-трусливая собака никогда не нападёт на человека или другое животное, разве что все пути к отступлению перекрыты, и она чувствуют себя в ловушке. Когда угроза для неё становится всё явнее, она продолжает вести себя трусливо, но скалит зубы, может рычать или даже огрызаться.

поведение собак

Трусливо-испуганный пёс может резко броситься в сторону угрозы, как бы «нападая», однако в последний момент он отступает в противоположном направлении. Не часто, но бывает, что испуганно-агрессивная собака ждёт, пока человек или животное повернуться и начнут уходить, чтобы затем неожиданно напасть со спины.

Агрессивная реакция.

Чувствуя злость и уверенность в себе одновременно, язык тела собаки говорит об агрессивном настрое. Имея серьёзные намерения, она целиком сосредоточена на выборе подходящего момента для атаки, а нападёт ли она или нет, зависит от дальнейшего поведения выбранной ею цели. Если жертва решиться на побег – начнётся охота.

собаки бузят Пёс делаёт всё возможное, чтобы казаться больше и страшнее. Он держит голову высоко, уши стоят ровно и направлены вперёд, хвост стоит «трубой» и его кончик покачивается в стороны, шерсть вдоль позвоночника поднимается, вес тела смещён на передние лапы (чтобы напасть в любой момент). Глазами он смотрит прямо на человека или другое животное, морща морду и подтягивая губы к дёснам, чтобы продемонстрировать передние зубы. Пёс рычит, огрызается или же лает низким, угрожающим голосом.

Оборонительно-агрессивная реакция.

Большинство собак посылают огромное количество сигналов, прежде чем реагировать агрессивно, но вы должны знать, на что обращать внимание, чтобы правильно интерпретировать жесты тела собаки. Когда собака ведёт себя оборонительно–агрессивно, она, если бы имела выбор, предпочла бы не ввязываться в конфликт. Она готова отпустить с миром человека или существо, которое опасается, и пойти своей дорогой. Но, в то же время, собака не собирается сдаваться, и готова постоять за себ я.

Mixed emotions of fear and anger lead to the demonstration of the same poses as with the appropriate feelings. Usually, the dog tries to look more than usual, the ears "look" up and forward, the tail holds firmly and high. He can distribute the body weight to all four paws, or only to the front / rear, depending on the situation. Usually, it depends on how close he is to the threat and whether he has the intention to stand on his own, to attack or retreat.

Typically, the dog removes the lips so that the teeth are visible, sometimes, while wrinkling the muzzle. Usually, it growls, snaps or barkes high, the hair on its back stands on end. Dogs sometimes bluff that they are serious and are capable of rebuffing, but the code gets to the point - they prefer to retreat. But some dogs are ready to make the first blow, and whether it will be produced or not depends on the balance of confidence and feelings of fear experienced by the dog.

Predatory behavior.

Did you notice the behavior of your dog when she notices a nearby cat or other cat nearby? Some individuals raise their ears vertically and forward to catch the slightest sounds, wide open their eyes, focusing on the victim and keeping the mouth closed. The dog's body strains, it presses it closer to the ground, as if "sliding" through the air, keeps the tail low in a horizontal position, without making any sounds.

As soon as you notice how your dog started to sneak - call to yourself (not forgetting to reward with praise), so that he does not mess things up.

At this end. A huge article came out, but you can better understand the language of the dog's body movements. Be sure to watch the positive video below, in which you will see one of the favorite activities of any dog. Thank you for attention!

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